Tuesday, April 12, 2011

Does H.pylori Cause Sob

StachowiczAn: Visions of the future of the Polish interwar literature

Witkacy fairytale fantasy
As imagined future in the Second World War? Responses to this question provide forgotten science fiction novel written in the 20s and 30 Twentieth century. The extraordinary faith in progress merges with increasing concern about the fate of the world. It is worth remembering this fascinating slice of history Polish popular culture.

History of Polish literature, science fiction begins with the average reader after World War II - from the novel by Stanislaw Lem. For this reason, we vacuum the forgotten science fiction novel [1] from the interwar period. In this text I want to present the then visions of the future and wonder why no one remembers that Antoni Slonimski was not only a poet but also an author of fantasy fiction.

Determining boundaries of thematic inter-SF is a problem. By Ivor Evans accepted the assertion that science fiction deals with the "possible, though not very probable developments in science and technology never seen before, or natural phenomena" [2]. It should be noted, however, that science and natural phenomena presented in the interwar differently than today. Still alive the interest in spiritualism (contact with rotating tables mitzvah hard nosed realists Boy Zelenski Marshal Pilsudski and the same), attempts were made to study the paranormal in a scientific manner - at the University of Warsaw, held up a world congress on paranormal phenomena. Therefore, considering the interwar SF, you should also replace the tracks moving subjects relevant to today's horror literature. The most famous items of this type are books by Stefan Grabińskiego. His thrillers based on the observation of unexplained phenomena, psychological and removal of bold hypotheses designed to explain them. These hypotheses were not the only products of the imagination of the writer, but sprang from the philosophy of Bergson and William James [3]. A similar type of fiction practiced Antoni Lange Miranda where Theosophical topics linked to the reflections typical of science fiction - a reflection on the further development of science and technology. Even in so firmly embedded in the Convention SF book, as City of Light Mieczyslaw Smolarskiego, there is a place for hypnosis and contact with spirits.

One of the important issues the interwar literature
SF was the future of the world and Polish considered in conjunction with the development of technical civilization. This is the variety of fantasy going to take a closer look.

Most future-oriented topic combined with the prevailing Polish fantasy currents in world literature. There have always been a glorious relationship. Many less ambitious writers drew handfuls of both specific ideas and schemes of the whole plot [4] of the famous colleagues from abroad. Czandu Stefan Barszczewskiego is Polonised version War in space (1908) HG Wells (the same "wonderful inventions, battles, etc.) complemented by a popular motif Polish defending against the onslaught of the Asians.

While less ambitious copied, writers such as whether Slonimski Smolarski through his works, took part in the global intellectual debate on the fate of our civilization.

prose authors
SF - inclined to describe the future - feel strongly connected with the actual currents in science and tried to develop the popular theories and inventions.

worth seeing, as - according to the interwar writers - look everyday in the future. I will start with a futuristic vision of transport. Polish romanticized are not there more 'original popularizers of science. Both one and the others believed in the further development of already invented means of transport, especially cars and aircraft. Richie Calder in his book presents visions of the future well-known English scientists [5] to convince readers that a few decades (in the sixties of the twentieth century), most Londoners will travel their own airplanes or helicopters. Also in How could that be (1926) Barszczewskiego main character is the holder of superfast electric helicopter. Andrew Will the City of Light moving aircraft and spacecraft solar-powered [6]. In a similar way travel imagined Slonimski (Torpedo time). In books Smolarskiego equivalent of today's large passenger aircraft, however, forgotten today, the great airships.

presents a very interesting vision of new energy sources. Even the scientists of that time [7] quite skeptical about the possibility of obtaining energy from the atom, although the triumph shone physical theories designed to lead to the creation of the atomic bomb. SF Writers
saw the future of solar energy. She was to serve as a weapon, drive a vehicle (Smolarski), and even as an equivalent electric lighting (Winawer). Production of all goods had to be fully automated (Lange, Smolarski). An interesting proposal was Smolarskiego videophone. Anyway, this is what the writer was able to provide solutions to many of the future - the future of Warsaw was a city of such great estates. Perhaps the wave of medical research on hormones and vitamins [8], the author of the City of Light believed that in the future you will be guided by the human psyche by means of special substances harmful to health.

shocking from today's perspective may seem unconscious of the writers on the further development of weapons of mass destruction. The most powerful weapon, which the soldiers under their future, they are usually the machine sending the mysterious rays (Slonimski, Smolarski, Lange) - machines which are a kind of unimaginable power laser (Smolarski) or invisible energy emitter (Slonimski, Lange). In addition, the armies of the future were to use a much improved chemical weapons (CW gases - the biggest bugbear interwar military in the world [9]).

But it does not describe the amazing inventions, but typing in the current intellectual debate on the future of civilization is characterized by the most interesting, in my opinion, the items of the period of Polish fantasy.

In this way the invention exploit the unusual theme Bruno Winawer. In his novel Doctor Příbram description of the innovation recedes into the background, and the main theme is "reflection on modern science and its impact on cultural transformation" [10]. The invention Przybrama title, although the phase of the plans seems to be a wonderful, It went into wide use, is controversial (phosphorescent nellit never goes out, the concept of the night is passing away.) The author also notes a problem so far ignored. Although many writers have seen in people of learning for future rulers of the world, Winawer shows how scientists have embraced a passion of knowledge, moving away from the problems of ordinary people.

issue of the impact of science and technology was a very happy man considered by intellectuals between the wars. SF Writers
spoke on this topic also in the novels of a utopian (Utopias, and utopias black - antyutopiach, dystopiach), outlining where their doubts about the future. In the essay devoted to the interwar fiction Andrzej Niewiadomski [11] tries to discern the roots of this trend of thought in the twentieth century a fear of science and technology have created in the era of enlightenment. He begins with Rousseau and return to nature, to come to the conclusion that the optimistic visions of where science and progress are in themselves a source of good and happiness, and evil only comes from ignorance, is always accompanied by the fear that similar thinking is only a pipe dream , that material progress can in fact significantly ahead of the spiritual and moral development of humans. This is a fear that we will be equipped with the barbarians of the technical skills once attributed only to the gods. Worst of all, progress in science may even lead to spiritual decline, and consequently - the downfall of humanity. Niewiadomski I agree with the existence of such deep roots of intellectual debate conducted in two decades, it seems to me, however, that had the greatest influence on her subsequent times. Wymieniłbym here burnout positivist ideas, and above all the cruelty of the First World War, in which technology played a very crucial role. It has always aggravated the existing doubts. At the same time news theme lent enduring a wave of new scientific discoveries and technological inventions to help a man's life. In addition to intellectuals who believe in a utopian future - such as Lewis Mumford combining technology and humanity [12] - have grown skeptical and even katastrofiści: Spengler, Ortega y Gasset, Bierdajew and even Florian Znaniecki.

believed that in modern society already exist in the latent seeds of future decline, or even "historical cataclysm." The only way of salvation would be: rapid mobilization of humanity and an attempt to build a new culture capable of safely coexist with the developing technology. In this vein spoke Znaniecki in his Fall of Western Civilization (1921): "... civilization that threatens the destruction in the near future unless we get to the conscious and planned effort to save it" [13]. He wrote so carefully then submit a negative impact of pervasive materialism, which manifestation was, according to him, including technique. Later in the book People teraźniejsi future and civilization (1934), Znaniecki formulated prescription for the renewal of civilization. In his view, the ideal of humanity can be achieved through the development of spiritual (moral) based on appropriate education of the younger generation, not by the same scientific progress. Most

SF novel
had no intellectual ambitions, but purely for entertainment. The debate about the future of civilization zaczerpnęły they only fear of the machine as something foreign, untamed well-established after World War I, the fear of another big armed conflict. They are not earning any more reflections on the human condition (books Adamowicz Barszczewskiego, Marczynski, Niezabitowski ...). The exception were Lange, Slonimski and Smolarski.

Lange, associated more with the young Polish, Miranda published in 1924, so it can be easily incorporated into the inter-war fiction. This novel, having the nature of utopian, is a continuation of utopia, I can say classic, because the seventeenth-century: Member of the Sun (1623) Campanella. Lange begins to tell the story of a fantastic country, where it ends the Italian author and spins his story until the end of the First World War. On the occasion of the work carried out criticism of his predecessor, showing the collapse of the system proposed by him. Present Słońcogrodzian a vision for the future while the rest of humanity. Anthony Miranda Lange supports the view that technological development, without concern for the spiritual development leading to the collapse of society (and therefore falls constitution proposed by Campanella). The vision of a perfect life, according to Lange, must be based on balanced development of both these spheres. The first pillar of happiness is to achieve a higher level of human spiritual development (astral body). According to Janina Hasiec [14] can be seen as a symbolic representation of the process of human improvement through education and upbringing. Transformation in the human astral body takes when entering adulthood after leaving school. In adopting this interpretation, it can be concluded that Lange came to the same conclusions as Znaniecki in present day Humans ... The second pillar of happiness in Miranda is an extremely developed technology and science, the total domination of nature. The author believed that such a rule, when in fact advanced technologies and a deep sense of morality of people, can not cause any damage to nature. The progress of civilization and spiritual development of man only by supporting each other, guarantee, according to Lange, happiness.

Another, also interesting, the voice on the future of Western civilization took Antoni Slonimski. Its two ends of the world (1937) had been deposited in the then present. Including the discussion about What will happen at the same time the author continued his criticism of what is, which dealt with as a writer, "Literary News". His book is a grotesque dystopia which is a polemic against the other, then the loudest antyutopią
SF , Brave New world Aldous Huxley. Huxley's book was the most popular, fictionalized version discussed earlier pessimistic view of the future. The Brave New World brake technology is the spiritual development of mankind. At the same time it hides antyutopia clearly utopian vision of a return to nature as a cure for the human spirit. In the textbook world of people "savages" remain the most human qualities: sensitivity to beauty, the need to create, moral principles, etc., while the world of material prosperity, progress achieved through advanced technology, leads to a life of happiness, paid for by the stagnation of thought and feelings of loss.

Slonimski sharply criticized the work of Huxley in "Literary News" [15]. The two ends of the world have the answer to a literary New wonderful world. The poet says there against the overgrowth of technological civilization, and, simultaneously, against the concept of returning to nature. Considers that threaten the world first of all people, not technology. Both modern technology and management program, a return to nature put into the hands of a madman lead to disaster. Retlich, the villain of the book, destroys human-tech weapons to build a civilization, then the nature of having the same negative characteristics, which huxleyowska technological civilization. Even when the "people by nature" liberate themselves from his reign, they are only capable of stupid mass mainly destructive actions. Slonim seems to be saying that since technology is always dangerous the idea of \u200b\u200ba civilization is subjected to pressure units (dictator) or pressure mass disintegrates. People always think Slonimski, will commit the same mistakes. The two ends of the world had to be both criticized Fascism (Retlich name is an anagram of "Hitler") and probably also of communism. Perhaps because the poet has come to a more sinister applications from Huxley, and no one sees the possibility of preventing a catastrophe. Criticism of Brave New World could also arise worship, which he nurtured Slonimski HG Wells [16]. Huxley's works was in some sense, the criticism directed against the ideas of the famous predecessor (in the book People like gods), but the pronunciation pessimistic Two ends of the world (Wells was a skeptic, but not a pessimist - although, as he referred to it that people will commit mistakes, although he believed that the civilization of a happy future) probably influenced mainly feeling approaching war.

Original, but also gloomy Mieczyslaw Smolarski future created in his two novels: Honeymoon Travel Mr. Hamilton (1928) and the City of Light (1924). With this originality, however, is a problem. All ideas are known to the world Smolarskiego rather Huxley's book. In 1948, the Polish writer, author of English, even accused of plagiarism. Indeed, the books of both authors are very similar ( City of Light was published eight years earlier than the work of Huxley). Huxley never ruled on this issue, which according to some Polish researchers [17] would be evidence of his guilt.

Smolarski (like Huxley) presents in his books the image of civilization with a highly developed technique, the feed to the stagnation in the arts and the spiritual decline of humanity. Only "the people of the forest" conceal the human passions. Honeymoon Mr. Hamilton the grotesque, full of humor coating hides the same message. Deprived of grotesqueness City of Light seems to be a vision of a much more sinister than that contained in the book, Slonimski, despite the fact that conceals a hope to return to nature. Smolarski, how many people in those times, he realized that the end of World War I period will not result in lasting peace in the future lurks a much more terrible conflict. This great war was to launch a band of bloody wars with weapons of mass destruction (chemical) that destroys humanity. Unfortunately, it was not a baseless hunch.

Looking toward the whole of Western civilization, SF writers
(especially those less ambitious!) Also tried to create a picture of the future Polish. According to Janina Hasiec [18], even with the City of the Sun Miranda Lange is a proposal to designate the direction of the newly formed Polish state. Smolarski in Travel Honeymoon ... he depicts Polish, part of the United States World countries lacking capital. President of the united world, like a feudal lord, during his term of office of all the major tours of the city. U Barszczewskiego ( Czandu ) Warsaw is the capital of a united Europe. In addition, the literature SF circling the old idea of \u200b\u200bPolish "bulwark of Christianity" - a lot of books about catastrophic, using popular then the topic of flooding in Europe by the yellow race, describes a heroic role in defending our country against the new scourge of the continent (eg Barszczewski Czandu, Adamowicz Yellow Triumph ). The tabloid fantasy literature eagerly preached then used the politicians' idea of \u200b\u200bPolish superpower. It was not meaningless - history has shown that the power actually belonged to the Polish realm of fantasy.

Native science fiction is, in my opinion, the most forgotten part of the inter-war literature, but underlined the fact interesting visions of the future. Causes of falling into oblivion, you can look at the low values \u200b\u200bof literature - most books
SF belonged to the typical specimens of pulp fiction. Stanislaw Lem in the introduction to Torpedoes Time Slonimski [19] rightly, in my opinion, notes that this is a problem at all over the world of fantasy, unless the current today. In the flood of minor works are lost valuable items. Moreover, sf theme deals with the distant future, however, narrative lies in the nineteenth century. Indeed, while - SF writers sharing the fascination with modernity - futurists [20] experimented with form, romanticized by the entire interwar period regarded as the ideal style of Young Poland. What's more, the authors SF engine instead of adoration, which persuaded Marinetti, chose, as I wrote, but rather the fear of the machine as a tool of the new apocalypse. As it turned out, quite reasonably.

seems to me that there is another, more important, reason for forgetting the pre-war fiction. Polish prose
SF take for the current problems of his day - issues that marginalized after the outbreak of World War II, never returned with such force. The turnaround in fiction resulted primarily use of nuclear weapons by the U.S., which was related to transcend (or at least catch up) the fantastic imaginations future. The great war described in the novels of Chemical fiction suddenly seemed unimaginable in the face of the Holocaust and the atomic bomb. New postatomowa fantasy, instead of describing the destruction of the world, began to focus on what happens after this destruction, and with more energy turned to the topic of space exploration.

[1] Next I used the abbreviation
SF .

[2] John Griffiths, What is science fiction? , [in:] Dispute SF (anthology of essays and essays on science fiction) , edited by R. Handke, ed. Poznań, Poznań 1989, s. 87th

[3] At the base currency. Andrzej Niewiadomski, Anthony Smuszkiewicz, Lexicon of Polish literature fiction , Ed. Poznan, Poznan 1990.

[4] At the base currency. Andrzej Niewiadomski, concepts of collective extermination (the Polish subjects of science fiction) , "Review of the Humanities," 1982, No. 10

[5] Ritchie Calder, Birth of the future (in the retort scholars) , Trzaska, Evert and Michalski SA, Warszawa [no date].

[6] Mieczysław Smolarski, City of Light , Ed. Poznan, Poznan 1988.

[7] Ritchie Calder, op. Bogan, 106th

[8] Ibid., P. 55

[9] See the essays Slonimski (Antoni Slonimski, weekly Chronicles 1927-1939 , PIW, Warszawa 1956).

[10] Andrzej Niewiadomski, Anthony Smuszkiewicz, op. cit, p. 214

[11] Andrzej Niewiadomski, op.

[12] L. Mumford, technology and civilization , trans. E. Daniecka, Oxford University Press, 1966.

[13] Florian Znaniecki, collapse of Western civilization , [in] the same, Philosophical Writings T. II , Oxford University Press 1991, p. 931st

[14] Janice Hasiec, around Miranda Anthony Lange , "Review of the Humanities," 1977, No. 4

[15] Antoni Slonimski, weekly Chronicles 1927-1939 , PIW, Warszawa 1956, p. 302nd

[16] Often praised it in his newspaper columns.

[17] More A. Prussian, the City of Light Mieczyslaw Smolarskiego a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley , "Review of the Humanities," 1983, No. 3

[18] Janice Hasiec, op. cit

[19] Antoni Slonimski, Torpedo time, reader, Warsaw 1967.

[20] At the base currency. Tadeusz Peiper, City, the weight of the machine , [in:] Tadeusz Peiper, Selected Writings , Wrocław 1979.


Ritchie Calder, Birth of the future (in the retort scholars) , Trzaska , Evert and Michalski SA, Warsaw
[ no release date, the book is not in any library, so I was unable to determine when it was granted].

Julius Garztecki, Tadeusz Gosk, Mirror fear and doubt , "Literary Monthly" 1967, No. 4

John Griffiths, What is science fiction? , [in:] Dispute SF (anthology of essays and essays on science fiction) , Edited by R. Handke, ed. Poznan, Poznan 1989.

Hasiec Ioannina, around Miranda Anthony Lange , "Review of the Humanities," 1977, No. 4

Charles Irzykowski, Fantasy (Because the book by Stefan Grabińskiego roses on the hill. Novels, [in:] Charles Irzykowski, selection of literary essays , Wroclaw 1975.

Antoni Lange, Miranda , Universitas, Kraków 2002.

Bogdan Mazan, Antyutopia as negative and the latent variant utopia, "The work of Polish Language," cheese. XXXI, Łódź 1975.

Andrzej Niewiadomski, concepts of collective extermination (the Polish subjects of science fiction) , "Review of the Humanities," 1982, No. 10

Andrzej Niewiadomski, Anthony Smuszkiewicz, Lexicon of Polish literature fiction , Ed. Poznan, Poznan 1990.

Tadeusz Peiper, City, the weight of the machine , [in:] Tadeusz Peiper, Selected Writings , Wrocław 1979.

A. Prussian, the City of Light Mieczyslaw Smolarskiego a Brave New World by Aldous Huxley , "Review of the Humanities," 1983, No. 3

Antoni Slonimski, two ends of the world , book and Knowledge, Warsaw 1991.

Antoni Slonimski, Weekly Chronicle 1927
- 1939, PIW, Warszawa 1956.

Antoni Slonimski, Torpedo time, reader, Warsaw 1967.

Mieczyslaw Smolarski, City of Light , Ed. Poznan, Poznan 1988.

Mieczyslaw Smolarski, Honeymoon Mr Hamilton. Fantasy novel from the year 2500 , Library of the Polish Home, Warsaw 1928.

Bruno Winawer, Doctor Příbram , penny's, Warsaw 1928.

Florian Znaniecki, teraźniejsi People and the future of civilization , Oxford University Press, 1974.

Florian Znaniecki, collapse of Western civilization , [in] the same, Philosophical Writings T. II , Oxford University Press, 1991.

author of the text:

source: Kulturaihistoria.umcs.lublin.pl

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