Monday, April 18, 2011

Referral For Real Estate Letter

Margaret Szpakowska: Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz's worldview. Catastrophism (excerpts)

Witkacy Portrait officer
Playing with fire is nice for the first burns. Witkiewicz was able to (...) to capture a significant tendency of intelligence to the responsible use too radical or revolutionary phraseology. So much is equity in reprymendzie given by Athanasius Sajetana Tempe, the future dictator of the State niwelistycznego "Lubiłbyś the revolution of the box to look like the ground floor show - even better, to make it uinscenizowane by these new quasi-public artists who have everything they want to do pseudoartystyczną crib: the rally, meeting, with street shootings, even the work itself. Idiocy of this idea jumps into your eyes - and yet some serious people still wonder about the possibility that "(PJ 157). For thrill-seeking is - after all - fun. Revolution and is a matter quite seriously.

inauthenticity is accompanied by a completely authentic heroes of the tragedy of accidents, a continuous string of violent social upheaval, coups, military and puczów popular revolts, in conjunction with the antics and kabotyństwem Witkiewicz a picture of history turns out to be pure macabre. The dramatic explosions, short-term stabilization, acts of terror, the constant turmoil of the masses - all these convulsions a disintegrating culture are the subject of interest of the Crown and the narrative fabric of literary works most famous.

In Farewell to Autumn make a turn: General Bruizora coup, coup carried out by the Socialist-chłopomanów and niwelistyczna revolution Sajetana Tempe. The Shoemakers coup Sajetana Tempe (another) coup faszyzujący Jozek Tempe and the rise of Gnębona Puczymordy. The only exit wield power after the triumphant victory of the revolution PPL Gnębonem Puczymordą (again, probably different from that of the Shoemakers ) at the helm, at the same time, however, there are two warring parties notoriously emzetfetystów and deteków, how they are fighting over - unfortunately known, because the continuation Witkiewicz's novel is not written. In Insatiability sovereign Syndicate National Salvation, and an unofficial dictatorship - General Sloboluchowicz, provocative novel, in the course of the coup, this struggle for political power so much it is irrelevant that in the end we all die as a result of external invasion. In Maciej Korbowa and Bellatrix game takes place between the parties, trade unionists and Centralists; in ONYCH League comes to power, the Absolute automatism, in Mother and Water Hen end are massive riots ; minor coups and political assassinations are not worth even enumerate. There is also no reason to as it's traced back to a litany of policy, even if it were possible to establish the chronology of events, there is little that could have arisen from this. Simply collapsing world culture for centuries formed and, consequently, its distribution has continued without interruption, "the chronic, dull as chronic tuberkuliczne peritonitis, continuous social revolution" (PJ 215.)

sophisticated ataxia following after a succession of explosions is not at all a matter of accidental. On the contrary, absurdity, confusion, lack of governance have been highlighted here on purpose, Witkiewicz did everything possible to cast our eyes. To this end, it seems, used the same names for different types of leaders of the revolution: that in order to emphasize the chaos. His position can be explained in two ways. First, emotionally: zrozpaczonemu hard to believe that what is the source of his sufferings, is in reality a deep, hidden meaning, providing a history of anguish is willing to consider as fundamentally absurd, rather than enforcing some hidden outside the "cunning of reason." Coming to terms with reality, the award because of history - would be apostasy, an act of resignation from the date values. But this translation is not the only ones. Witkiewicz had - on the basis of his theory of culture - quite reasonable to suppose that in cases where birth and watching the further development provided, no order should not be inferred. As long as the story was a work of outstanding and intelligent individuals, pursuing through it one way or another your goals - you could see in her order, since then, however, when the engines of historical changes took crazy crowds - in the course of events had also lost all rationality. (...)

for the coming revolt of the crowds [Witkiewicz] looked at from the perspective of his characters - "former people", the identity with which in the end poczuwał himself, and for whom the revolution was synonymous with the ultimate end their world, their class and their culture. The only good side of the revolution could be the aspect of spectacular. One could hope that for a while it is able to provide such experiences which break the boredom hopeless pursuit of unreachable values, the one who is directly threatened, usually under the influence begins to notice some fear, the sense in her, no matter how empty and barren and life. So Witkiewiczowscy heroes often express the desire that this, finally approaching the end was inevitable, hence the desire for a disaster in the previously cited Bazakbala expression.

Quickly, however, turned out to be generally that the expected strong impression had by no means waking metaphysical experiences. The secret revelation of Being is not born under the influence of panic. Witkacy Insatiability writes: "It's difficult to find such an abstract, metaphysical element in the roaring jedenastocalowych howitzer battery. The real cause of its survival, rather revolution, acting in immediate danger, it is not able to provide disinterested in contact with the absolute "(N2: 222). For that very reason revolution - contrary to the hopes - can not make real art. Firstly, because no one works in a paroxysm of fear or under the influence of terror, and secondly - it is too massive, too mundane, too crowded animal element. It is after all the work the crowd. In Farewell to Autumn Bazakbal says: "Maybe a few Russians in the background of their revolution has created something almost new - there is in Russia, the material is no longer content rhymed, propaganda leaflets - healed with the form, which is like a living germ layers broke the old złożysk" (PJ: 158).

Artistic Revolution infertility is not the most dangerous. From the viewpoint of "former people" - except the constant personal danger, of course - the revolution reveals the characteristic of much potworniejszą. Shock, revolutions, terror and horror nothing can not change, and the sensitivity to them quickly waning. The revolution turns out to be just boring.

Revolutions in Witkiewicz's dramas and novels are presented, moreover, very uniformly. It is significant here is that most simply take place behind the scenes, are something entirely external to make up the campaign events, they are blank, featureless force, a sort of cosmic catastrophe. So are shown very sparingly - as the sound of gunfire, as the noise and screams from the street - mostly in the lounge, which gathered the heroes. Because the characters are rarely Witkiewicz revolutionaries, but if they have it would happen - either provocateurs or thirsty thrill, "former people" social position does their participation in the revolution is not predestined, but the author also focuses attention on the other, nierewolucyjnej side of their personality.

revolution for them is always a kind of anticipated, and indeed boring spectacle, and writer, and those to which he returns, they are only spectators of the spectacle, in a literary work is reproduced Witkiewicz what he repeatedly spoke of himself - that the revolution in Russia looked like a box (ND: 264). Yes, and now tells his readers to look: with chic cafes in the city "in Maciej Korbowa and Bellatrix, in the living room in the Palace Nevermore Water Hen, with resort villa in Farewell to Autumn. This choice is not the point of view, of course, without consequences for the same image: the living room through the window he sees only the "rabble" and senses of his cruelty and no one sees but neither the causes nor the internal organization of the armed flowing through the street crowds. It goes beyond the possibilities of understanding the resources available, "there were people, even when they are entangled in the course of events. Korbowski the Water Hen says, for example: "Let's go to the street. I like the atmosphere of upheaval. Nothing more fun, like swimming in a black sea of \u200b\u200bfrenzied mob "(D2: 61). Someone somewhere is fighting, someone builds a barricade, storming the prison, did not really know who or why, just know that this is a dangerous one. The crowd is cruel. Usually wants to kill someone or destroy something on fire. The butler announces in Maciej Korbowa : "Your Excellency - people are at the gate. Some of them want to blow up everything - others say they can not because [it] is a museum "(D1: 190). The crowd in Anonymous Work demands the death of leaders: "At the lighthouse! Hang! Hang! Hang both! At the lighthouse the entire government! Down with the priests! At the lighthouse Giers "(D2: 127). Workers at the Mother make the person of Leon "little lynching in the name of democracy collapses" (D2: 448). It is not even important, what it zrewoltowanym masses, is only known that after the victory prove to be cruel.

Some elements of this image Witkiewicz able to draw from his own observations: the sound of machine guns, six Sailors from Maciej Korbowa , maybe the scene in the courtyard of the prison in Anonymous Work . However, worker-revolutionary, not one of the crowd and not "be a man", but an independent literary figure, appears in his work probably only once. It Puzyrkiewicz Oleander, holding a bomb Scary Hyperworkoid of Shoemakers . Witkacy this figure actually built with only three elements. The first of them - a sense of injustice, but, importantly, personal injury: a memory torture and fourteen years in prison. -Mockingly cruel manipulation of the bomb, and indirectly the whole revolution are thus also a kind of personal revenge. The second component - a rhetorical tendency, because although all the characters Witkiewicz characterized them, but in the scene with Hyperworkoid is highlighted by the words of another character (Gnębon Puczymorda asks in despair: "Can not you even a moment to do without the lecture?" (D2: 580) and recorded in the stage directions by the appearance of the plate with the word "boredom." Finally, the third element - a relationship Hyperworkoid with those who actually govern on his behalf: devoid of any unusual banal bureaucrats, Companions of the X and Abramowskim. Continued Shoemakers was written before: the last part Farewell to Autumn.
In Farewell to Autumn said that the revolution "has become for some a mere pretext to end unnecessary to themselves and to anyone, but similar waste, of life" (PJ 215) . It is called the revolution "fun for the bored, barren waste latter category "(cf. PJ: 215). Permanence of bloody coups or directly applied terror are not able to restore the metaphysical feelings. Also turns out to be impotent in this respect, another form of power revolting masses: a dull and soulless bureaucracy. With such a bureaucracy is met Athanasius Bazakbal when full of good will return to the country where the party took power in the meantime niwelistyczna. Already on the way, writes Witkiewicz - "(...) he was amazed by almost crystalline order zrewolucjonizowanych Germany: work, work and work, angry, bitter, inevitable as the fire well-adjusted artillery battery. Wandering the empty museum Athanasius looked sadly on the works of old masters - it was a grave, life is full of former building, in such recent times, when the painting was still alive. Today, contact between what was and was interrupted by reality - images of withered flowers, even though as physical objects remained the same as before - they were no longer needed anyone "(PJ 407).

collapse of art, its utter unsuitability of the new world, accounted for only foretaste of what the new society could be expected. Further observations made by Athanasius, is even more depressing: "Some new people issuing out of the abyss in which they were hiding. But their faces were rather frightened of what was happening. There was none of that mood is not suspended like a rush, that feeling was there, a few kilometers, the border station - obtuseness, suppression, disbelief and fear - this was the general atmosphere, which felt at once " (PJ: 408).

" paid for all the three classes of the same, but the right to comfort was proportional to the quality of the carrying out of functions (...). At the station, tortured him, even though passports Tempego, unheard paperwork (on the border it was a folly in comparison with that). Finally, bear a terrible amount of securities went into the street " (PJ: 409). "Everywhere cards, signatures, stamps, photographs, inspection, and testing ględzenia. Pettiness of it all frightened Athanasius straight. He ate it for some paper and had to make so-called "statement of work" without this nothing - die of hunger. (...) What I saw was a little new, but so hopelessly dull, that at times seized with despair, and began to regret that he did not eat a tiger in the jungle ceylońskiej " (PJ 411). "He got cards for food, clothing, shoes and flat - at some robotnicznej family, district IV-s, Street Shabbat, an hour away from the office. He was stunned. And these faces, these faces, which he saw everywhere. "God! so is it will look like my action a social " - thought with despair " (PJ: 412-413).

similar picture of bureaucratic rule also appears in the output only where the omnipotence of the PPL is a guarantee of stability and stabilization of the totalitarian state. In leaving only also clearly than in the previous Farewell to Autumn , shown was the primacy of the state organization over the individual: in the novel later mass, crowd, people just - in nearly all disappear, and at the forefront of their branch is extended Institutional: " Somewhere in the distance shot - again, began to storm the emzetfetyści deteków arsenal. Nothing is - PPL is an institution absolutely necessary in every regime, Pe-Zet-Pepu not break anything. It saw no such fight, and reversed: statehood as such, brought to the summit, as a necessary function at the camera every social system (of course samorządzącej syndicalism in the sense of the organization of the workers was excluded), and vigorous intellectual development of all officers [...] - these were two lines of the guidelines of the demoniac, indeed, the institution '(JW: 64).

" The workers were good - wanted nothing more. Everyone had a house and garden, culture has a slightly withdrawn - drobnorolnictwo was a great counterbalance for industrialization. Really it was good, despite some technical primitive life, but why? Because capital as such, a private, completely taken by the throat. Ruled PPL - is the secret of everything " (JW: 101 - 102) . " Already many a prophet, what he wanted to save the rest of the people, from the idiotic samoomamienia serene, which represented the students-grandchildren Leon Chwistek, hung Citadel [...]. Someone ruled all of this for sure, but a mysterious ghost perhaps, because on the outside but with some lackeys, coarse gold and szamerowanych, there was not anyone " (JW: 126 - 127) .

In such a society, completely bureaucratized, zuniformizowanym and institutionalized, metaphysical experiences are, of course, even harder than that achievable in a world of decaying bourgeois culture in decline, which, however, some enclaves in the universal boredom and unsaturation gave sometimes find.

social upheaval is presented as dangerous not only for those who are its subject, or for those who are thrown overboard; also its most active participants in the revolution is not a metaphysical experience can provide. Indeed revolutions taking place either by a spontaneous outburst of the masses - they are so animal supremacy of the element, by definition metaphysical foreign states, or - more often - are the work of the representatives of the former ex-people
" , vainly seeking liberation from boredom in staged its bloody fun. This last topic is worth attention, because corresponds well with the views cited here for the philosophers, who study the phenomena of mass, the the role of agitators in the social upheavals. Well, the organizers and initiators of the revolution are not generally considered representatives of the crowd, but members of the elite, with these or other reasons for acting against its interests. Such a view is understandable, since the crowd is attributed to a factor only destructive, eo ipso precluding his organizational skills. That is at Le Bon, so it is in Gumplowicza and Kochanowski, so it is also - though not always - with the famous.

His revolutionary leaders, moreover, do not derive from the revolutions organized by them no real advantage: their hunger and boredom by the coup are not at all scattered, at most, lose the rest of his view of social illusions of what their activities are led. There are indeed - even for the mere fact of punching above mediocrity - a very dangerous situation. Instructive in this respect may be an example Sajetana Tempe, Shoemakers. As the leader of the revolution is achieved, it is true power, but is then overthrown by his own associates ["Not even you can not talk, as spaces. Discredits ino
revolution " (D2: 570) - says one of the Apprentices] and murdered, but also because the crowd needed some mythology, the same cynical Journeymen create it on the hero of the revolution, the flagship character of the new system .

You could be the next leader of the living, for you have wyprztykał prematurely by those damned papyri and Speak no neuter measure, it will be a sacred mummy, but the dead, cat! We then these remnants your zeskamotujemy forces and create a myth about you [...]
(D2: 571) - say Journeymen, and the echoes Hyperworkoid, indicating a freshly murdered corpse Sajetana as the "Great Holy recent revolution of the world, who gave us the way to the Supreme Law" (D2: 580) .

Witkiewiczowska revolution creates, moreover field action not only for the ideologues, but also for ordinary szalbieczy and bastards. All this, however, is devoid of significance. The course of the revolution or upheaval may be more or less bloody, or nuisance, the final result is always the same. Was the revolution described by Witkiewicz have bored "People were
" , careerists or ideowcy honest, the end result turns out to be always the same society, egalitarian, homogeneous, and characterized by the predominance of the spiritual element animalnego: weight, unable to survive or to create metaphysical culture in the old sense, and occupied only satisfying their livestock, biological desires. After a wave of upheaval, relapse, recourses time, uncertain stability bestial terror and explosions, after a long series of shocks, painful for the participants, but less important for the whole process - and finally comes the finale, a nightmare prophesied by katastrofistów: undifferentiated society. That which preceded his birth, is from the perspective of this final vision without much attention. As he says in Hardonne Insatiability "because whether you win or those [...] the result will be a: happy machine " (N1: 98) . Witkiewicz thought the same thing.

future happiness of society-the machine is ensured in two ways. As reduced to a purely biological level, it frees itself forever from any kind of metaphysical yearnings, which benefit so much trouble to representatives of the former elite. Egalitarianism and ensure the proper organization and adequate basic needs of all members of society. Accomplishment will see the vision outlined by the hero's departure One :
"I will promote now my biological materialism as the only possible philosophy of the official future of humanity, which must be imagined as some kind of communist anthill, with the maximum utilization of every man according to his capacity. The one who * will fulfill these functions, which will be the most talented, will be the happiest on the ground - it will be another in a maximum intensity. And at the same psycho-physical Research Institute will determine the type and quantity of chow, a dose of sleep, reading and the type of sexual intercourse - women will be determined appropriate by the competent authority - to regulate and everything will be all right " (JW: 73) .

These words were written after the huge success - even among us - Huxley's Brave New World, which translate may, moreover, the presence of such rare elements in the work of Witkiewicz and eugenic utopias of technological, represented here by the idea of \u200b\u200binstitutional control how the physiological needs. The essence of things, however, is such and such a utopian idea, but primarily on the ground of this negative attitude towards the future, animal happiness, based on a line through these values, which were expensive Witkiewicz, to spread biological dosytu mundane.

" But the future of society, society homogeneous and mrowiskowe, in which decisions will rest in the hands of the masses, representing just animalny element in humanity - a different hierarchy of values \u200b\u200btaken into account simply can not, moreover, there is no reason for doing. Ballast for the abandoned ancient culture is not one to miss. No longer will anyone feel its absence. In Anonymous Work Lopak, the leader of one of the next upheaval, he cried out: We do not need a government of priests under the guise of democracy collapses. We will create your own true self. We will bypass without parliament, organizing labor unions real lazy. We will create paradise on earth with no leaders and no job! My! A uniform, gray, sticky, stinking, terrible mass: The existence of a new individual, in spite of all metaphysics, based on the notion of the individual and the hierarchy! There are no individuals! Down with personality! Long live the one, single WEIGHT! Hurrah! " (D2: 126).

come a paradise on earth, but for the "former people
" will not place in it. In 1893, then eight, Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz wrote comedy entitled Cockroaches: appeared in her "something gray " , which "began to approach " (D1: 51-54) .

can say further that all his work consistently take the same theme: more and more new stages approaching this gray. In view of the imminent prospects for an end to the culture remains the hands down katastrofiście: kasandryczne predictions are not able to reverse the course of history, are at the most calm one's own conscience. You can bear witness to the collapse of his own world - but this decline can not resist it. You can seek refuge - but without the hope that it will be effective. You can finally pull their views final conclusions - and so did Witkiewicz, najkonsekwentniejszy of the prophets of disaster, when in September 1939, the prospect of the coming "gray
" simply changed into reality. His was a desperate gesture, he was also in a sense, heroic. If the measure of value is the price to maintain these values decide to sacrifice - Witkiewicz gave witness to the dying culture that values \u200b\u200bwere significantly important for him. Delivery of what predicted in his writings, no longer wanted to see. Since the Book of Revelation began to comply, he preferred not to wait for its end.

Probably, it was an escape. But what else is left? After all, the only alternative would be - this or that - to accept. And he wanted to avoid this, perhaps it is simply disgusted. He was already too old, too tired to once again try to mock, to turn history moves in a grotesque joke. To reiterate what the thirteen years ago, wrote in the conclusion Farewell to Autumn :
" But it is good, all is well - What? - Can not you? It is good, damn it, and who say that no, it's him in the throat! " (PJ 450).

author of the text:
Margaret Szpakowska


rights to the book worldview Stanislaw Ignacy Witkiewicz
has Szpakowska Margaret. The book is available under the Creative Commons
Attribution - Noncommercial 3.0 Poland -----------------------------------


Post a Comment