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Power, which looks, or the ways in antyutopiach surveillance and uncertain reality dystopiach

model prison Panoptyko n (DP)
authority, rebellious, and the rest

Jacek Inglot in article Fri Dystopia: Escape from Freedom? writes: "The classic dystopian scheme (referred to as early as My Zamyatin) implies the existence of the society described in three groups: power (total and more or less omnipotent), Indomitable (in one way or another Existing deniers way system) and all the rest (which approve without resistance given reality) '(Inglot, 1990: 56). The diagram below perfectly captures not only produced in the dystopian realities strict sense, but also in dystopia. Antyutopia and dystopia are species that are very often - in my view wrongly - are often equated with each other.

both present a negative picture of government in which the individual can not obtain happiness. Factor differentiating them is the fact that the authors of dystopia (the a satirical utopia) based on their visions of utopias. Antyutopia an expression of the revisionist approach to all ideas on the ideal organization of society. Sometimes it takes the form not only criticism, but a kind of parody of the utopian agendas. However, dystopia (negative utopia) does not refer directly to the utopia as a literary genre. The inspiration to create the dark dystopijnych worlds most authors provide the reality that surrounds them (Smuszkiewicz, Niewiadowski 1990).

antyutopiach and dystopiach The relationship between the distinguished by Jacek Inglot groups tend to be presented in a very interesting way, often through the application of the Convention science fiction or social fiction. The anti-utopia and dystopia power is dangerous, because it has a disturbingly large knowledge of the citizens. A single person is not always aware of how it obtained the information. The power just to look. It is not known whether continuously or only occasionally. For this reason, arouses fear in some, but the desire of the opposition. These types of feelings are not characteristic of most societies, devoted to the daily recurring duties, ogłupianego variety of entertainment, convinced, that all of the representatives of authority are made for his own good (antyutopia). Some people tend to be blinded Great idea, others try to live peacefully with the day to day in a hostile system, convinced of the inevitability of stability and its location (dystopia). There are also humble, and who ask awkward questions adverse social order - and for that policy makers can not afford.

method of governance in the worlds presented in antyutopiach and is a perfect illustration dystopiach Panoptykonu, presented including by Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish . Panoptykon is an ideal model prison. Prisoners in it do not know who is the guardian. They do not see it. Therefore, they are satisfied that at the time they are being observed - but always accompanied by awareness that can be (Foucault, 1998: 191-220). The feeling of being under the supervision of and the need to adapt their behavior to the expectations of the viewer clearly falls within the social system and principles of operation dystopijnych antyutopijnych reality. The life of a single man in this world can not deviate from the generally acceptable pattern, and a deviation from the norm are often under severe consequences. Human existence is transparent and the government looks at its citizens in dozens of different ways. Below I will try to switch some of them.

Lem in 1966
(udost. Wojciech Zemek, license CC BY-SA 3.0 )
public space

antyutopiach and dystopiach In most Society is not interested in the fact that he is under constant control of power. It sometimes happens that there is about this, even the faintest idea. There exist and such Dystopian worlds in which a perfectly functioning system was developed many years ago and does not require amendments. Representatives of the government are looking at the side of its operation only in case of emergency need for interfering with what is happening. This reality has been featured in popular dystopia of 1932, ie Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. Exercising control, the administrator of this world rather not resort to radical methods. Przemyslaw Czaplinski (2003: 239) even believes that the state presented in this novel is weak. However, it seems to me that the government simply failed to lead to a situation in which there must demonstrate its strength. Just look reality in the world Return of the stars Stanislaw Lem (1961), where he was shifted image of life on Earth from the perspective of the astronauts returning from space travel ponadstuletniej. The situation in other anti-utopia is so specific that the competent authority is not entirely visible. It is difficult assume that carelessly spending time Earthlings are left alone.

Hal Bregg after returning to the home planet has a substantial measure of freedom, but feels constantly supervised. Institution that has unfolded over the stellar care of travelers, is Adapt. Its task is to adapt men to life in a completely different reality. Employees Adaptu after landing hall and other astronauts monitor their actions without any arrangement with them that matters. A man realizes that he is observed - officials know where he lives, and they have plans. The purpose of the private Travel Desk is aware of a young psychologist working in Adapcie. "She knew that it Klavestra. They watched me, or what? "(Lem 1975: 74) - Hal wonders, without understanding how workers Adaptu obtain such information, nor the reasons for this oversight. It is not known what extent is the authority for its action. In the novel it is never presented directly. None of its features or even no mention of it. Andrzej Stoff (1990: 39) writes, however, that "lack something in the novelistic world is not always the absence of evidence of that thing, may be simply a lack of information," and the world depicted in the novel Lem describes as "a" soft ", thinly disguised totalitarianism." That the government is silent, does not mean it does not keep track of what's happening.

Monitoring developments in society and the swift reaction to the unwanted behavior very clearly been shown in Ray Bradbury's dystopia of 1953, ie 451 ° Fahrenheit . The main protagonist, Guy Montag, yet a faithful servant of the system (man works as a firefighter, this is the one who burns books) is caught the possession of books and reading them, what in the world, in which he lives, is an extremely serious offense. A man in despair commits homicide at a colleague from work and runs away. Chase begins. You will be sent Montagiem designed specifically to similar circumstances a mechanical dog. In the wake of the so-called dog moves. TV helicopter, which is filmed the whole action. It displays the date a warning to all citizens. The chase turned the eyes of the whole country can not end in disaster, but contrary to expectation Montagowi escape. Understandably, such information can not be given to the public. The mechanical dog comes by, therefore accidental man smoking a cigarette. Surprised wretch is captured not only by the iron jaws of the mechanical animal, but also by the unrelenting camera lens. "The camera fell on the victim, like a dog. Both at the same time they reached him. The victim was caught by a dog and a camera in one powerful, spider deadly embrace. The man yelled. He shouted. He screamed! Image vanished "(Bradbury 1993: 198). In the dystopic reality 451 ° Fahrenheit offender's death - It's that the alleged - it must be done before the eyes of millions. After all those millions to feel safe.

Eugene Zamyatin , c. 1919, (DP)
private space

The world of My Eugene Zamyatin, dystopia of 1920 recognized the precursor species is named Member of the One. Reality in which they live heroes of the novel, is controlled with mathematical precision. All classes perform a detailed daily plan, there is no literature and art - the most precious monument of the written word is a railway timetable. Heroes novel does not have names, only numbers. The State does not count only the individual but collective, hence the title of "we." If we do not recognize the rights of individuals, there is also no privacy. People live in houses with glass walls, which facilitates subjected to observation. A little intimacy may be attributable exclusively to them so. Sexual days. Then replaced by - of course, upon presentation of appropriate vouchers - the pink curtain to the time of the sexual act they cover the glass walls. Explains how the protagonist of the novel, Δ -503: "This law is valid in our days only sexual. Every day in their walls transparent, as if woven from lustrous air, we live forever on view, always bathed in light. We have before us nothing to hide. In addition, it facilitates the severe and noble Carers work. Otherwise, what it could come "(Zamyatin 1989: 18-19). Subjected to the indoctrination of children at the same time the main character and narrator of the novel in her diary at first describes the perfection of his world. Do not see your system One or disturbing anything strange. When it finally sees it will want a different reality and the courage to revolt. Soon, however, will be restored to its original state bezkrytycyzmu - Dystopian authority does not permit the spread of revisionist heresy, which could crush the monolith of the system on which the supports.

In less than a written Thirty years later the Year 1984 George Orwell presents a world in which similar rules apply. The citizens of Oceania do not live in houses, although the glass walls, but are subject to constant surveillance, as well as residents of a Member of the One. Each private apartment occupies one of the walls teleekran, which not only enables the observation of the propaganda broadcast programs, but primarily monitors the behavior of citizens, and captures all the sounds, including of course a private conversation. Thought Police can easily connect to any of the apartment. Heroes of the novel are forced to everyday life, knowing that all the time can be viewed by representatives of government, and each of their behavior can be put to the judgments of state leaders. Orwell writes about it this way: "left to live with the assumption - and lived out of the habit, which passed in reflex - that every word is overheard, and every move closely guarded, unless the room there is just darkness" (Orwell 1988: 6) . Winston's attempt to escape, the protagonist of the novel, from the grim reality of course is a success. Authority not released his possessions so easily from your hands. Teleekran and a voice coming from him will appear in the life of Winston and his lover, Julia, if you will feel secure and separated from the painful reality. Interestingly, as in 451 ° Fahrenheit here too oppressive gaze is accompanied by dread of death. Gaze is directed at a few dissident does not involve automatic execution, although as with Bradbury, but against the unexpected voice, belonging to the Oceania representative government is impossible not to think about. "You're dead
- said an iron voice behind the figures "to a moment later continued:" Now you see '(Orwell 1988: 151). In dystopiach sight of power - despite assurances szumnych soaked through and through false lofty slogans - brings with it uncertainty and danger, never at rest.


transparency is not only a literal or technical achievements allow the government to obtain knowledge of the citizens. State leaders use the old methods as well as humanity - namely have for their services dozens of infiltrators. In Tales Quick Reference , the 1985 novel written by Margaret Atwood, Canadian author, was presented to the world completely dominated by men. Women there have been reduced to the role of the maid, thoughtless companions of life or machinery to bear children. In Gilead, a totalitarian world, however, not only women are oppressed and they not only suffer the consequences absurd decision power. Although their role is clearly defined, it is by no means happy men. Each man's strange behavior - regardless of their gender - interpreted as an action against the regime may be a pretext for a given unit of interest in power. They know about the informers. It is difficult to be certain that, before whom he must conceal his thoughts and feelings, and to whom he can trust. Therefore safest to avoid all, because anyone can be denunciator - Insight.

system operates as informants in the worlds created by George Orwell and Bradbury. In Oceania are established special organizations to teach children from an early age desired behavior, which of course must also whistle blowing. In fact, the Year 1984 not surprise anyone, therefore, fear the characters from their children for providing a state organization with a lot of speaking the name of informers or pride embedded in the Ministry of Love with several years of Parsons' daughter, who denounced it without scruple. Do not trust a particular adult. Each of them can be an agent of the Thought Police - even a very nice impression sprawiający antique shop owner. In the world depicted in 451 ° Fahrenheit situation is very similar. Blood ties or sympathy certainly does not protect against denunciation. Guy Montag would have no reason to in a hurry to leave his home if his wife found a book, did not initiate an alarm and not referred to appropriate services.

extreme modernity

on how to exercise control and dystopiach antyutopiach can be seen as the extremes brought to the project of modernity. The quest for stability, the desire to introduce a total order and protect the individual against the uncertainty after the collapse of the earlier order has clearly reflected in antyutopiach and dystopiach. The authority expressly limits the ability to make choices by the residents and thereby eliminate their dilemmas. In antyutopiach believes that does it all for the good of citizens. Jeremy Bentham, the creator of that Panoptykonu, which is a symbol of modern methods of control, was also convinced that people are subjected to constant supervision will be happy. His desire for "the greatest happiness for as greatest number of people "(Bauman 1995: 74) is identical with the ideas advocated by the state leaders in antyutopiach and their faith in the rightness of the new reality. Please be aware that, in accordance with the expectations of most government heroes dystopia - that "the rest" - remaining under control usually does not interfere. They live, observing the prevailing rules, do not hide anything, their everyday life is calm and free of worries. Often do not even notice that they are however restricted.

"Überwachungsstaat dreht am Rad (own work in 2006), the license CC BY-SA 3.0
In dystopiach authority also uses the methods characteristic of modern institutions, as pointed out by Michel Foucault. The institutions presented in the novels of representing this species is often a misguided form of military barracks, prisons or hospitals, where control mechanisms are brought to an extreme. Despite this, the dystopiach power in their behavior is often translated the introduction of the universal desire for happiness. But this is not her real goal, and citizens are fully aware of this. Ongoing surveillance is for them - in contrast to the dystopia of heroes - often very painful, but we have no way to break free from it.

Dystopian and dystopic reality is most worlds in which all aspects of the lives of individuals are clearly defined. It happens that in the novels is invoked prior to the introduction of reality regulation and surveillance on a massive scale. Entering is usually a gradual process ( Brave New World or Return from the Stars ), but sometimes the characters speak of revolution and sudden, radical social change orders ( The Handmaid's Tale). In the novels strictly dystopijnych (but not only) very often the most attention is the power to create control mechanisms in the private sphere. Perhaps the reason for this is that the hero under constant surveillance and public space will not be able to get rid of a feeling that is observed. Along with the application of effective methods of surveillance units in the private space to develop a self-checking mechanisms in the same heroes. Thus, the authority may treat the supervision of public space and more - controlling territory - and the network of informers only as complementary factors total surveillance.

Authority looks and that is the main force that can not be ignored. Look both dangerous and the very different view. Interestingly, the characters trapped in the shackles of oppressive power of sight much less say and think that its effect can become a deadly touch. Ubiquitous surveillance is itself a penalty - and this punishment is almost always involuntary.


M. Atwood, The Handmaid's Tale , Kraków 1992.
R. Bradbury, 451 ° Fahrenheit , Warsaw 1993.
A. Huxley, Brave New World , Cracow, 1988.
S. Lem, Return from the Stars , Kraków 1975.
G. Orwell, 1984, Warsaw 1988.
E. Zamyatin, We , Warsaw 1989.

Z. Bauman, body and violence in the face of postmodernity , Torun, 1995.
Czaplinski P., questionable parting with utopia, in the same, World bogus. Criticism and Literature to the new reality , Kraków 2003.
M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish . The birth of the prison , Warszawa1998.
Inglot J., Dystopia: Escape from Freedom? , "Fantasy" 1990 No. 1 (1988).
Niewiadowski A., Smuszkiewicz A., Lexicon of Polish literature fiction , Poznań 1990.
A. Stoff, is, what is not mentioned , in the same, Lem et al. Essays on Polish science fiction , Bydgoszcz 1990.
Szacki J., Encounters with Utopia, Warsaw 2000.

text was written based on my master's thesis, pt. influence of power in the realm of human flesh in the anti-utopia and dystopia on the example of selected works .

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